Since WordPress 4.2, Wordpress start to support utf8mb4 which was introduced in MySQL 5.5.3.
When your development environment is MySQL5.6 and your product environment is pre MySQL 5.5.3, for example,it's MySQL5.1, you have to face a problem: When you import the sql file from MySQL5.6, you cannot import it.
it will show a error message.
The solution of transfer database from MySQL 5.6 to pre MySQL 5.5.3 is when you export database through phpMyAdmin, select "Custom", Then using MYSQL40 compatibility and importing that into your 5.1 environment.
When this method failed, I suggest you try to use a WordPress Plugin: WP Migrate DB. Using WP Migrate DB to backup wordpress database, there is an option:Compatible with older versions of MySQL (pre-5.5). Make sure you select this option. Then,export and import to MySQL 5.1 should be fine.